Ask Dr. Shah


Zulfiqar Ali Shah received his BA and MA (Hons) in Comparative Religions from the International Islamic University in Islamabad, Pakistan and his PhD in Theology and Religious Studies from the University of Wales, UK. He has taught at the International Islamic University in Islamabad, the University of Wales in the UK, the University of North Florida and Cardinal Stritch University in the US. He is the former president of the Islamic Circle of North America, Shariah Scholars Association of North America, the current Executive Director and Secretary General of the Fiqh Council of North America and Religious Director of the Islamic Society of Milwaukee. He has authored many articles and books including Anthropomorphic Depictions of God: The Concept of God in the Judaic, Christian and Islamic Traditions. His upcoming ground-breaking books include Islam and English Enlightenment: The Untold Story, Islam and French Enlightenment and Islam and the Founding Fathers of America.


The Concept of God in Judiac

Christian and Islamic Traditions

Ifta' and Fatwa


Astronomical Calculations

A Fiqhi Discourse

Research and articles

The Ottoman Empire and Its European Foray

In this intricate web of European politics and religion, the Ottoman Empire asserted its presence powerfully. With vast swathes of Eastern Europe under its control, the Empire naturally found itself juxtaposed against the Catholic Habsburgs, both vying for a broader sphere of influence.

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The Qur’an and Human Reason

Dr. Zulfiqar Ali Shah

The concept of reason in the Qur’anic perspective is a multifaceted one, incorporating elements from various philosophical and historical traditions.

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The Qur’an and the Importance of Human Reason

The Qur’an, the holy book of Islam, places a strong emphasis on the importance of human reason, critical thinking, logical argumentation, and common sense. It values the use of our intellect to understand the world, theology, morality, and the human mind. 

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Voltaire's Nuanced Fondness of Islam

Voltaire’s Nuanced Fondness of Islam

Voltaire, whose real name was François-Marie Arouet (1694-1778), was a French philosopher, writer, and thinker who made significant contributions to the Enlightenment. 

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Book Reviews

Zulfiqar Ali Shah’s book is an extensive undertaking that is encyclopedic in its scope and ambitious in its aims.  Although written with a view to demonstrating the relative superiority of the Qur’anic and Muslim understanding of the transcendent God, the book’s lengthy treatments of corresponding biblical, Jewish, and Christian understandings seem largely fair, balanced and thorough. 

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The French Enlightenment: An Exploration of Islamic Influences

The history of the French Revolution and its ideological aftermath has often been framed within the juxtaposition of the Enlightenment and the religio-political underpinnings of medieval Christianity.

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